The contract of Nanking (chin. pinyin: Tioyue) terminated the first Opiumkrieg between Great Britain and Qing China.
The contract was signed on 29 August 1842 on board the British warship Cornwallis of the negotiators Qiying and Sir Henry Pottinger and ten months later after formal approval by queen Viktoria and emperor Daoguang in Hong Kong was ratified. It was first of the so-called unequal contracts and assured to the Englishmen in particular the profitable right to Opiumhandel, which of many historians, in particular of Chinese, when devastatingly for the development of the empire of China one regards.
As central regulation the contract saw the opening of the ports of canton, Xiamen (Amoy), Fuzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai for the free trade with England forwards (kind 2). In particular became the various restrictions, to which the trade in canton had so far been subject (so-called Cohong monopoly system), waived:
Into article 3 of the Nanking contract England "the eternal possession right was transferred "at the island Hong Kong (Hong Kong Iceland). De jure could therefore have required the People's Republic of China 1997 only the endaround carry that only 1898 leased so-called new Territories. Even if nevertheless Hong Kong Iceland and the 1860 were returned by the Pekinger convention retired Kowloon, then this happened out of consideration on the fact that these areas without its hinterland would not have been survivable.
Far obligated itself China for the payment of altogether 21 million silver dollar at England. Of it were
The payment should take place in four rates to 1845. During exceeding of the date interests at a value of 5% became per annum due (kind 7).
As return for the war remuneration mentioned the British armed forces committed themselves to the retreat from Nanking and the emperor channel after receipt of the first rate. The likewise occupied Zhoushan should be vacated meanwhile only after complete payment of the entire sum (kind 12).
In kind the Qing government committed itself 8 and 9 of the contract to immediate release of all arrested British citizens as well as to unconditional amnestying of all Chinese subjects, who acted with the British used, with the British or confessed in British services.
Kind 11 finally planned a neutralization of the phraseology. The British should not have to serve in connection with the Chinese buyers and authorities in the future no more of the tradierten expressions like "asking writing "or "to request ". Rather the use of words should be permitted like "report ", "statement "and "explanation ".
In particular after its addition by the contract of Humen 1843 the contract of Nanking should make the way for a number of similar agreements free, with those foreign powers China step by step of large parts of its national sovereignty robbed.
By the contractually also further secured import of immense quantities Opiums by colonial powers was not only weakened the economy of China lastingly. Also the population siechte by the consumption obligatory imported Opiums and the Unterversorgung with the most important goods of the life.
Opiumkriege - first Opiumkrieg (1839-1842) - second Opiumkrieg (1856-1860) - contract of Nanking - the Opiumkrieg (film) - British east India company - Hong Kong - unequal contracts
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