Dualism theories belong to the range of topics of the development theories. On the basis of the acceptance of at least two connected economic, social, technological or regional sectors in case of of developing countries a pessimistic prognosis is particularly placed.
Often becomes from a "traditional", subsistenzorientierten (i.e. on self-sufficiency) sector put on, and a "modern" industrially organized sector gone out.
A social dualism is present e.g. if western social system beside the "tradtitionellen" native "imported" exists. With it often go an economic dualism of a supplying ("traditional") sector with a substantially smaller modern sector of the economy, which aims at a small native group of buyers or for the export produced. A technological dualism exists with the parallel existence more modern and all technologies. The term regional dualism implies a division in two parts into developed and underdeveloped/regions left. The different kinds of dualism cause and complement each other often mutually.
Characteristics of the traditional sector are often small capital resources and the use of simple production engineering and organization along the extended family, like them in agriculture, handicraft, to find trade and small industry are.
Economics and development policy recommendations refer due to the Nichtverbundenheit and postulated Nichtverbindbarkeit of the sectors often on a one-sided promotion alone the modern sector (see also modernization theory).
Disagreement prevails with the question of the intensified international economic integration of developing countries into the world economic system. Dependency theoreticians reject this due to bad trading terms (term OF trade) for developing countries. Others see straight in the economic integration a chance for the overcoming of the dualisms.
A kind of play of the dualism theories is in 20. Century is enough popular dependency theory of the Raul Prebisch (see also center and periphery). A newer kind of play are the modernization theories.
A main point of criticism at the dualism theories is the unsatisfactory explanation of the causes of the division in two parts into different sectors.
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